Evidence for the Existence of God (Part 1 – Something from Nothing)

An Argument for the Existence of God

“There is no evidence for God whatsoever.”

“He is an imaginary fairy friend in the sky.”

“Science has disproven God.”

These are the claims of atheists who say that God doesn’t exist and claim there is no evidence. Of course, the vast majority of atheists have never studied any of the evidence and have not even read a single, solitary book written by a theist. So, how could they possibly know about any existent evidence that may be there.

In this series, we will present some of the more simple evidence that points to God’s existence and show why it’s more reasonable to believe in God than the alternative. None of these articles on their own will be “absolute proof” but evidence for God.

I often ask atheists: “If you do not believe in God, then where do you think everything came from, just out of curiosity? You are so certain God does not exist, you must know how we got here and have the evidence to back it up. So, where did everything come from and what was the very first thing in the beginning? Or is there just an infinite amount of universes that have always existed, no explanation?”

Recently an atheist answered, “Well the Big Bang. It’s science. See, God doesn’t exist!” Believe it or not, this was a grown man who said this.

Really? The Big Bang? You mean the same Big Bang that was discovered and outlined by a Catholic priest? Father George Lemaître in 1929 didn’t seem to think it contradicted God.

At the moment of the Big Bang all matter, time, space, and energy came into existence at a singularity from nothing. Many scientists do not like the ramifications of this and propose that the big Bang could be older than 13.7 billion years and could have been expanding and contracting for eternity?

However, this still does not answer the question. Was it from nothing? Or did purely potential matter somehow exist from all eternity? If from eternity, how did it all just exist? How was it “just there?” Atheists demand believers to answer this question but cannot even begin to answer it themselves. And if everything came from nothing, how did we suddenly get something from nothing? In this first article, we will focus on the latter question: the impossibility of getting something from nothing.

Saying something arose from nothing means everything came about by nothing, from nothing, because of nothing, and for no reason whatsoever. It was all a big accident, or rather, trillions and trillions of random and meaningless accidents that just happened.

The fact is, you cannot get something from nothing. It’s impossible. If there was only nothing in the beginning, there would still be nothing now because something does not and cannot originate from nothing.

For example, take the number zero. Zero represents nothing. 0+0=0. Add another zero to it and what would you get? Zero. More nothing. What if you add 100 more zeros to zero, or a million trillion trillion zeros to zero? It is still zero, still total nothingingness. You can add as many zeros to zero as you wish, and it always comes out to exactly zero. You will never get 320. or 510, or 75,0913.

0+0 = 0 and 0 + 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 still = 0.

Nothing + nothing = nothing. Nothing + a lot more nothing still = nothing. Not something. If there was only nothing in the beginning, there would not be anything existing today. There would still be total and complete nothingness.

Nothing = no thing. No existence. Nothing in existence.

If there was only nothing, then it is impossible to suddenly have existence, something. Put another way, nothing cannot give what it does not have. For example; imagine there are 50 people all crammed into a small room. These 50 people all have to read the the same book. They begin asking if anyone present has a copy of the book. Upon realizing that no one possesses a copy, it becomes evident that nobody can read the book because no one has a copy of it.

In other words, you can’t give what you don’t have. Apply this to creation. Nothing (no-thing, no existence), does not have any existence of its own and therefore existence cannot suddenly be given from nothing out of nowhere. There had to be someone or something who possessed existence by its very nature and therefore is able to share that existence.

Some people will object saying that in the quantum realm things come in and out of existence all the time from nothing!” However, that’s not really accurate because we know in the quantum realm, it is a sea of fluctuating energy within a vacuum. A vacuum is not nothing and a sea of fluctuating energy is not nothing. Those are both something. We are talking about literal nothingness, no-existence.

The truth is that nothing does nothing. Nothing is nothing. Nothing makes nothing. It’s nothing. You can’t get existence, some-thing, from nothing, no-thing. It’s impossible.

This is where some people may interject; “How do you know it’s God? It could be anything. It could be aliens, it could be the Flying Spaghetti Monster!”

No, it cannot be and here is why. Aliens are material beings, and matter came into existence with the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago. Therefore, aliens would have beginning and would not transcend creation itself. The same thing is true for the Flying Spaghetti Monster, also made out of matter. It would had to have come into existence and itself cannot be the transcendent Source.

Any matter which has come into existence has to have a cause, a reason for its existence. There is cause and effect, and the things we see throughout the universe are the effects, of which there must be a Cause. Matter and created materials cannot be this cause as they themselves were created. They have no actualizing power to do so, and they cannot keep themselves in existence by any power or non-power of their own.

Thus, the Creator cannot and is not made out of matter, which means it has to be immaterial or spiritual. The Creator cannot exist in space or time making this Being space-less and timeless (or eternal). So, what we have is an immaterial, spiritual, and eternal being of pure existence, and we can begin to see a picture of God forming here.

This is what we mean by God. God is pure Being. He is existence itself. He is the one who by His very nature possesses existence. If nothing possessed existence at all by its own nature, then there would be no existence at all. In other words, nothing.

We will see this more in a future article on evidence for God from the argument of contingency. However, since there is a being of pure existence, that Being is able to give existence to everything else, people, trees, planets, solar systems, stars, matter, etc. through the Big Bang or any other means He chooses. One thing is for sure, the Big Bang could not have created itself, nor could it be the cause of itself.

Even if something preceded the Big Bang and caused it, this only pushes the question back one more notch – what caused that?

God is the uncaused Cause of all things, which we shall see later. It is a universe of cause and effect and of one thing that leads to another. Similar to the game Dominos that you set up around the room and then watch them all fall in a line. Dominos are dead and cannot move themselves. Thus, there had to be someone who pushes the first Domino and causes the rest of them to begin falling. There has to be a cause for the effect. The uncaused God and first Pusher of all things is God. The universe cannot begin pushing itself just as dominos cannot. More on that in future articles.

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Catholic and Orthodox (Emotional Argumentation vs. Intellectual Argumentation)

You have seen it. You jump on social media and see a semi-controversial topic posted. Your eyes fall down to the number of comments and notice 43 comments in just 10 minutes. Curious, you click the comment section link to see a long argument breaking out – one person yelling at another, moaning about how stupid the other person is and the little brains they have in their head. The other person retorts about how the other person is bringing about the end of the world with his views, and so on.

What started out as a semi-rational discussion devolved into a heated exchange of just insulting the other person’s character and telling them how wrong they are without a single shred of evidence to back themselves up.

Intellectual Arguments vs. Emotional Arguments

What is the difference? Intellectual arguments are arguments that are supported by evidence and facts, usually including statistics, credible studies, authoritative quotes, science books, or some other form of reasonable evidence that will buff up your argument and make it more credible.

Emotional arguments may start with some shallow evidence, but quickly resorts to insulting the other person, their dignity, character, and their arguments, rather than addressing them, correcting them, or offering evidence of why they might be mistaken. Yelling at the person and calling them names and telling them they are wrong ensues.

Anybody can see the difference between the two approaches.

One is based on evidence and is therefore more solid, the other is based on emotion and passion where someone may feel strongly about something but cannot back it up or cannot control their emotions. It goes without saying that a person cannot claim something is true if they cannot back it up with facts or at least with good evidence.

Frustration over “stupid people’s” arguments!

Discussion: Catholic Vs. Orthodox

To illustrate this, the following conversation is an example that we are all too familiar with. I recently got into a conversation with a person who claimed to be part of the Eastern Orthodox church. It all started with one statement which said: “There is no difference between sins. All sins are Mortal sins.”

I decided to respond…

Me: All sin is mortal? That statement doesn’t make sense to me. I am not sure what you mean by that. Could you explain?

Her: Of course all sin is mortal! Death cometh by sin. Remember Adam and Eve? Sin and death and all that? Sin is mortal.

[Interjection: We have both put our opening statements and now we need to back them up with evidence.]

Me: Well, that seems like a problematic statement. Both the Bible and the Church make a distinction between mortal and venial sin. Therefore, it’s impossible that all sin is mortal sin if the Bible distinguishes between the two. Scripture also says that all sin leads to death, not just mortal sin (Rom. 6:23). [Note: I tried to appeal to the Bible for evidence to back up my point.]

Her: The Bible does not, and the Church does not say that. Categorizing some sins as mortal is a Roman innovation no older than the Protestant reformation. The Orthodox Church has never taught such a thing. [Note: statement made without evidence].

Me: But, the Bible absolutely does make a distinction between mortal and venial sin. Perhaps you don’t know your Bible very well? Look at 1 John 5:16-17. It says, “If any one sees his brother committing what is not a mortal sin, he will ask, and God will give him life for those whose sin is not mortal. There is sin which is mortal; I do not say that one is to pray for that. All wrongdoing is sin, but there is sin which is not mortal.”

[Note: I backed up the statement with the exact a Bible verse quote to strengthen the argument and to show the Bible specifically says that not all sin is mortal. To me, it seems as evident as it could be.]

Her: You even sound Protestant, citing cryptic proof texts to support your 500 year old doctrine.

[Note: Note that she did not even attempt to answer my statement or the Bible verse. She immediately reduced her argumentation to insulting me, calling me a Protestant, and accusing me of taking the verse out of context but without any evidence of her own to support herself. She merely brushed off the Bible verse.]

Me: Proof text? Did you even go to the Bible and read the passage? Did you even know it existed? You don’t seem to know the Bible that well, and so you don’t have ability to lecture other people about it. Here is what you don’t realize: that in addition to that verse, all of the earliest Christians through the centuries also believed the point I am making.

[Note: I cite some examples so it’s not just an empty statement]:

For example, John Chrysostom in the 5th century, one of the most well-know Christians in the early church. He says, “For not all sins are the same punishments, but many and diverse, according to the times, according to the persons, according to their rank, according to their understanding, according to other things besides. …” Homily 75 on Matthews Gospel (347-407 ad)

John clearly teaches that there are different sins and different punishments for the sins. There are many more Christians that I can quote. We are talking 1600 years ago, so this alone proves that the Catholic Church did not invent this doctrine merely 500 years ago.

Her: Of course, another proof text. There’s no reason to think “sin unto death” is anything like what the papists invented at the council of Trent.

[Note: Again, this woman dismisses the entire argument again and says nothing about the Bible quote. She reduces the entire statement to a proof text without any evidence for why it is. That’s emotional argumentation, not intellectual.]

Me: Catholic beliefs go back long before Council of Trent 500 years ago. You do not seem that educated on the Bible or history, and this isn’t really worth my time to have this discussion if we are not even on the same page. Perhaps if you study a little bit more, we can have a more intellectual conversation.

Her: You’re taking a 500-year-old definition of a term and trying to equate it to a totally different definition from a thousand years before. Please tell me you’re accidentally being this inconsistent and not doing it out of deceit. Mortal sin doctrine was established at Trent. Look it up.

Me: That is not true, and you have offered no evidence of that. To the contrary, I have shown you that Christians long before Trent believed in different types of sins, not just mortal. But if you want to convince me, then I challenge you to find me one passage in the Bible where it says that all sin is mortal and that all sin is the same. Then, I may believe you. Also, find me any early Christian who teaches your position, and I will be willing to listen. I may even leave the Catholic Church.

So again, please provide a Bible passage and an early Christian to prove your point. [Note: I’m actually asking for evidence].

Her: You are basing your belief on an interpretation of a single verse which the early father’s understood differently and which interpretation is contradicted already in Acts. It’s a wrong interpretation.

Me: I quoted two early Fathers (but only put one here for sake of length) and they were not “obscure” quotes, but some of the biggest leaders in the early church. You’re holding blindly to your own doctrine but you’re doing so erroneously instead of humbling yourself before God and having an ounce of humility to admit that you could be wrong. [Note: That last sentence was more of an emotional argument on my part and could have been omitted.]

When you say there is no difference between mortal and venial sin and yet the Bible says there is a difference, then again, that is on you. Again, please show me one place in the Bible where it says all sin is mortal, and I will believe you.

Her: You’re retarded. Learn about the Patriarchates. Read something that’s not papist propaganda, and maybe you will lose some of that papist arrogance. The papists are the schismatics. Rome changed the creed and demanded undue honor like Lucifer. They’ve been riddled with cancer ever since.

[Note: Everything again devolved into nothing more that insults without a single bit of proof. She assumes I’m using papist propaganda even though she has not asked for my sources and I was quoting historical sources. Then, she just jumps to a new topic, again, with no evidence to back up her claim.]

Me: First, the Catholic Church is the one true church that was started by Jesus Christ. Therefore, it is the Orthodox who are the schismatics. History shows that the Eastern Orthodox churches broke away from the Catholic Church in 1054 A.D. Read the earliest Christians, they all claimed to be Catholic, not Orthodox. They claimed to be part of the Catholic Church with a capital ‘C’ and founded on the rock of Peter.

Her: What makes Rome apostate is the fact that they left the rest of the church. They changed the creed without a Council. The demanded extra honor from the body of Christ. They were puffed up. They’ve invented new doctrine ever since. They have not kept the traditions. The Catholic Church is a schismatic church.

[Note: A whole slew of assertions were lobbed as ammunition but with absolutely no evidence whatsoever. Just general statements.]

Me: The Catholic Church was the Church that made the Creed in the first place at the Catholic Council of Nicaea, and so has the authority to change it. So there was a Council, and it was officially changed. You do realize that the creed has changed several times in history, right? It’s not like the Bible that is the Word of God.

Second, the Catholic Church as I said was started by Jesus. And historically, the Coptic’s broke away from the Catholic Church in the sixth century, and the Orthodox broke away in the 11th century. Proof of this is the fact that twice in history the Orthodox churches have come back to the Catholic Church and reunited with them. One time the Patriarch even knelt before the Pope and swore his fidelity to him before breaking away again at a later time. This proves that it was the Orthodox who broke away and not the other way around.

At this point, the lady just accuses me of spewing papal propoganda. She didn’t once throughout this entire conversation try to deal with my arguments, point out where they might be wrong, offer counter arguments, or offer any evidence to back up her points. This is emotional argumentation. And it’s the way so many people discuss on social media and even in person sometimes.

Seeing that conversation was going nowhere and it was pointless to have the discussion, I just let it go and prayed for her.

Step it up!

Everyone would benefit from learning more, studying more, and bolstering their arguments instead of throwing insults as evidence. Support your arguments with facts instead of condemnations. If you have to yell, scream, tell people they’re going to hell, or resort to just insulting their character, then it shows that you’re argument is not strong in the first place, and you should rethink your position or study the topic deeper, or you are getting too offended too quickly.

We all can get defensive if we feel we are wrong and are being backed into a corner. What is needed is an intellectual honesty to go wherever the truth leads. It also wouldn’t hurt to ask questions about the other person’s beliefs to figure out where they are coming from and why they believe what they do. The more understanding we have for what they believe, the more respect we will have for them and the more we can adequately discuss it

As Christians, we need to make sure our argumentation is good. Which means we need to study more. Research more. Ask questions more. Dig deeper. And make sure we understand the reasons behind why we believe what we believe. We also need to make sure our manners are good and that we reflect Christ and His love, even in difficult situations. That can be hard, but that is where prayer comes in.

Check out our other articles and our YouTube channel to learn more about your faith and about more apologetic arguments that will help you to grow in your own knowledge and bolster your own discussions.

God bless.

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The Sacred Heart of Jesus – How God thirsts for our love!

By, Fr. Joseph Gill

In the Church, the whole month of June is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. This is one of my favorite devotions, as it emphasizes the true humanity and deep tenderness of the Lord.

The devotion originated with St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, a French nun who began having visions of Jesus’ Sacred Heart in 1673. Jesus revealed to her His own desire to be loved: “Behold the Heart that has so loved men that it has spared nothing, even to exhausting and consuming Itself, in order to testify to Its love; and in return, I receive from the greater part only ingratitude, by their irreverence and sacrilege, and by the coldness and contempt they have for Me in this Sacrament of Love.”

How strange to consider that God, who is Perfection Himself, desires something! He who is Pure Joy still thirsts for our love! The “heart” is often considered the core of the person – their inner life, their emotions and desires, their very self. This Sacred Heard devotions shows the inner life of God – how His Heart burns with love for us, and how It desires nothing more than to be loved in return.

Image result for sacred heart of jesus picture

It took a while for this devotion to catch on – her own mother superior believed these visions to be nothing more than a hoax. But with the support of the priest-chaplain of the convent (who himself was a saint – St. Claude de Colombiere), the devotion began to become deeply rooted in the life of the convent. The Jesuits soon heard of it and spread it far and wide. In 1928, Pope Pius IX wrote an encyclical which publicly ratified devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

One of the reasons why the devotion struggled to catch on was a heresy called Jansenism, which was rife at the time. Started by Bishop Cornelius Jansen, a university professor, it emphasized the total corruption of human beings. He said that only certain people were predestined to be saved, and heavily spoke about God’s judgment and wrath with its concomitant strict morality. Much of the Church was deeply influenced by his teachings. Although his teachings were officially condemned by the Church, many preachers continued to emphasize God’s anger and our corruption. As a Protestant preacher later put it, we were “sinners in the hands of an angry God.”

All of this influenced the cultural milieu in which St. Margaret Mary found herself. Her own autobiography bears witness to this – she sees herself as nothing more than a worthless worm, a vile sinner, and she performs extreme penances to assuage God’s justice. While all of this shows a glimmer of truth (we are all sinners who ought to do penance in reparation for our sins, since God is truly just), it is also incomplete – it lacks the perspective of God’s infinite mercy, His redemption of mankind, and His desire for an intimate friendship with us. Hence – the Sacred Heart devotion was God’s corrective measure to balance the excesses of Jansenism!

Catholicism is not “either-or” but “both-and”. It is not either God’s justice or His mercy – it is both/and. Human beings are sinners AND we are washed clean in the Blood of Christ. We must obey the Ten Commandments AND have a deep personal friendship with Christ. Our spirituality gets out-of-whack when we emphasize only one to the exclusion of the other.

What can you do to return more love to Jesus and fulfill His desire to be with you? How often do you attend adoration? Confession? How often do we pray and take quality time for God in silence in the midst of our cray and chaotic world? This beautiful feast day recalls the beauty and passion of God’s Heart – a heart wounded by our sins, but still burning with love for us!

Fr. Joseph Gill is a priest of the diocese of Bridgeport, CT. Originally from Maryland, he was ordained in 2013, he has worked in parish ministry, youth ministry, and as a high school chaplain. His passions are forming young disciples of Christ and using the media to evangelize. He writes for Catholic Truth, and he can be reached at frjosephgill@gmail.com.

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Best Catholic Books for Beginners

People often wonder what the best Catholic books are: books to learn your faith, or the best books on love and relationships, or the best books on Catholic apologetics, and so on.

So get ready! In this article, we are going to offer our top Catholic books for beginners recommendations to help you learn your faith more and to find more inspiration and clarity.

This is a beginners guide to learning your faith but are helpful for most anyone. For example, the first book is just great if you have a lot of questions, encounter people who attack your faith, or just want to know more. However, it is also a fantastic resource for seasoned Christians for learning how to explain your faith and reach others who have fallen away.

You can also check out our YouTube video on this topic if you would rather! OK, let’s get on with it!

Book 1: Why Do You Believe in God?

The first book that we highly recommend is called, Why Do You Believe in God? This book contains 15 real (not made-up) Catholic conversations with atheists, skeptics, and those who have fallen away from faith. It’s the perfect real-life book because one is able to hear arguments from both sides and then see why the Christian theist side is stronger.

Many people have praised how much information this book contains, and yet it is so easy to understand. It offers simple, logical, and straightforward explanations for those deep questions of faith like the existence of God, evidence for Jesus and the Bible, the Crusades, science and religion, evolution, our purpose in life, why God allows suffering, and much more.

These are common questions people have or ask. It’s a great place to start if you are a beginner, have questions, or just want to learn more about God. with that being said, it is also a great resource for those who are more advanced in faith to help them learn practical street apologetics and evangelization. You will hear answers and arguments that work and see why they work. This book also offers pro-tips for reaching friends, family, and those who have fallen away. Highly recommended!

Book #2: Did Adam and Eve Have Belly Buttons?

The next book is called Did Adam and Eve Have Belly Buttons? by Matthew Pinto. It’s a good question, isn’t it? Did they? Belly buttons come from the umbilical cord, but since Adam and Eve didn’t have parents, would they have belly buttons then?

Hmm. You’re going to have to read the book and find out. (DOH! >_<)

This book has 200 questions in all that teenagers ask but that everyone is curious about. Adults read this book too and love it. I myself have read this book as an adult a couple of times and have learned a lot. Even just learning how to phrase things when explaining it to others is helpful. I recommend it for sure, but I like the next book by the same author even more.

Book #3: Did Jesus Have a Last Name?

Did Jesus Have a Last Name? And 199 Other Questions That Catholic Teenagers Have, by Matthew Pinto and Jason Everett. This book contains 200 questions on every subject, and if want to learn more about your faith, this is the book for you. If you have a lot of questions, this is the book for you. If your catechesis was poor, this is the book for you.

Again, you do not need to be Catholic and do not need to be a teenager to read this book. Most adults will garner a lot from what they find on it’s pages. There is a ton of information, pretty much everything you would want to know., but it’s very simple and straightforward. It’s a great skeletal outline of what we believe as Catholics, and what we believe about the God, Jesus, the church, sacraments, prayer, Saints, why we use holy water, why statues, bless ourselves, and so much more. The answers are clear and concise, and you can skip around the book for those questions that are of interest to you.

Book #4: “Prove It” Series

Another cool little series is the Prove It series by Amy Welborn. Super small, super simple, super easy to read. Definitely a book for teens and beginners. The first one in the series is Prove It: God. Does God exist? Yes, he does. Here’s why. Here are the reasons.

Amy does not only give you the answers you seek but also how to explain them to others. This book is meant for young people like teenagers and college students. It has a little spice and a little sass in it’s writing style.

Welborn also has a book called, Prove It: Jesus. She gives answers to questions like: How do we know Jesus worked miracles? How do we even know he was real? How do we know he really rose from the dead? Likewise, she has one on the Church, and one on prayer. This whole series is recommended for those just starting out.

#5: Bible Basics for Catholics

One fantastically good and easy book to read is one that Catholics need. It’s called, Bible Basics for Catholics by John Bergsma and Scott Hahn. This is a wonderful introduction to the Bible. Let’s be honest, Catholics do not know the Bible and they should, and it often seems boring and confusing. This book takes you on a whirlwind tour through Scripture to help you understand it and make sense of what you need to know and how it applies to your life. Side perk: It even comes with with cute little pictures and doodles that will make you smile!

The Bible can be really confusing sometimes, and some things just don’t make sense. Honestly, there are some weird stories in the pages of Scripture. How do you make sense of them? This book will definitely teach you how to understand the Bible and have it come alive in your life. If you are looking to learn more about the Bible, then this is the book for you.

Book #6: Beginning Apologetics

Last, but not least, there is a whole series of books called Beginning Apologetics which teach you how to explain your faith on a variety of topics. These books are great for teaching the basics, a nutshell version of certain topics.

These booklets are only about 30 pages long. Some of the topics include: Beginning Apologetics: How to Answer Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons. Another one is How to Read the Bible, another one explains the Eucharist, another explains tough moral issues on abortion, euthanasia, contraception. These books are a great way to start learning how to explain and defend your faith.

Get Excited About Your Faith!

If you start learning your faith, you are going to keep going and growing, and trust me; it becomes exciting. Even those of us who grew up Catholic have a lot of gaps in our knowledge. Either our religious education was poor, or maybe we walked away from God, or just didn’t want to ask questions, or perhaps, you asked questions and did not receive good answers. Well, these resources are fantastic and will help you begin your journey! It’s a wonderful and beautiful journey, and I’m speaking from extensive experience. So, get started!

If you are looking for more books to help you learn and defend your faith, or just grow closer to God, check out my videos “Best Apologetics Books” and the “Best Spiritual Books.” We also have a video on the Best Inspirational Catholic Books and other book recommendations coming soon on other topics.

Learn your faith! This is one thing that we need to do, and it’s not optional. We might as well make it interesting! It’s time for us to arise once again, to grow, to live our faith, and to become excited in our faith. It’s time to set our souls on fire with love for Christ and the Holy Spirit.

As God’s creation, were meant to live on fire, in other words, to live with passion! In fact, when Christ came down to Earth, he said, “Oh how I wish that I could light a huge fire, and how I wish that it was already burning.”

No one should sleep their life away on earth, and nobody should sleep their spiritual life away either. If you find religion boring, are coming back to God, rediscovering your faith, or just have a lot of questions, we guarantee you that these books will help transform you. We guarantee that if you read these books and begin to study your faith deeply, your faith will come to LIFE! God will cease being a mere concept and begin to be a real person in your life and things will begin to make great sense!

Feel free to check out our YouTube Channel here which will greatly aid you in your quest for learning the faith and growing in your relationship with God. At Catholic Truth, we want to be here for you. We are here to accompany you on your spiritual journey, to help you grow in your relationship with God, with yourself, with your Church, and in your spiritual life! God bless you.

Please support Catholic Truth and all the work we do now and in the future!

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Answering Anti-Catholic Arguments (and showing why they are wrong)

This is a response to an anti-Catholic attack on the Catholic Church. It shows ow unreasonable, uniformed and irrational most anti-Catholics are.

Anti-Catholic: You Catholics are so gullible, and you won’t listen to reason. I can’t prevent you from buying the Brooklyn Bridge, but I’m asking you to please stop promoting it to others as a “good deal.”  Here’s the deal; all of the costumes, the smoke, and the God-forbidden statues and idols, the stained glass windows, “Bingo Nights”, car raffles, and homosexual clergy,you’re your “catechisms” all directly contradict the Bible and Holy Scripture… and on and on and on.

Here is an example from the Baltimore Catechism Q – “Why did God make me?” A – “God made me to show forth His goodness and to share with me His everlasting happiness in Heaven.” TRUTH: Nowhere in the Bible does God ever state that anyone has ever gone to Heaven (His throne), or that anyone ever will. You’re not yet even mature enough to realize that your ancient Roman religion was originally a government-enforced continuation of the even more ancient Babylonian Mystery Religion – with many things added/deleted at Nicaea (Trinity, Christmas, Easter, immortal soul, and many more).

My Reply: Your answer is a sad caricature of Catholicism filled with misunderstandings, and a lot of bias. You claim that the Catholic faith is not biblical and you quote many Catholic distinctives to support your point. However, what you do not realize is that these things are, in fact, biblical. I find Anti-Catholics only know about 20-25 verses that they have memorized, but they do not know the rest of the Bible or how to read it in context. So, here is my reply:

“Costumes:” You mean priestly vestments? The vestments that priests wear are found all over Scripture. For example, you may start in Ex. 28 and read that chapter about the different religious vestments and clothing that were commanded from God. Click here to read Exodus 28.

“Smoke:” You mean incense? Again, incense is found all over the Bible. Here are just a few passages: 2 Chron. 13:11, Ex. 25:1, 2, 6; 35:4, 5, 8, 27-29. Rev. 5:8, and many others. Is Catholicsism still unbiblical? 

Statues and graven images: You said statues are forbidden by God, and yet statues are only forbidden in they are worshipped as idols. Idols are statues, or anything, that are worshipped as God, or worshipped in place of God. Not all statues are idols. A Martin Luther King Jr. statue is not an idol, for example, just the remembrance of a man who performed a lot of good in the world. In the Bible too, Exodus 25:18-20 shows statues being used for God’s purposes.

Ex. 25: “And you shall make two cherubim of gold; of hammered work you shall make them at the two ends of the mercy seat. Make one cherub at one end, and the other cherub at the other end; you shall make the cherubim at the two ends of it of one piece with the mercy seat. And the cherubim shall stretch out their wings above, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and they shall face one another; the faces of the cherubim shall be toward the mercy seat.”

People say that statues don’t show what God truly looks like. Well either did the statues of the angels on the ark. Statues are only symbols, representations. Other graven images from the Bible too. See: Number 21:8-9; 1 Kings 6:23, 27, 29, 30; 13; 9:3

Bingo Nights: Really? Bingo nights?? If you are going to take things this ridiculously far, then the we must add that the Bible doesn’t mention cars, headphones, chicken nuggets, religious bookstores, or baseball. Should we should remove all of these “idols” from society?

The Catechism: The Catechism of the Catholic Church does not contradict Scripture and is not in competition with Scripture. Rather, the Catechism is an encyclopedia of Catholic beliefs and where our beliefs are found in Scripture and in history, So, no problems there.

You specifically mentioned the Baltimore Catechism which says that God made us to live with Him in heaven someday. You were emphatic that the Bible nowhere states that anyone is in heaven. Except… it does! This is what happens when we do not read the Bible as a whole.

For example, read Rev. 6:9 and other verses like it. It shows people are in heaven. Not only are they in heaven, but they are talking to Jesus, are cognizant, and remember what happened to them on earth.

Trinity – The divinity of Christ and the Trinity is the central teaching of Christianity and has been for 2000 years. If you do not accept it, you are not a Christian. Here is a article we wrote answering a Mormon on the Trinity.

Christmas and Easter – These holidays are celebration of the life, death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus. It has nothing to do with paganism. Even a 5 year old could observe that.

I will pray for you Mr. anti-Catholic, and i pray that you research what Catholicism truly believes. You may want to invest in some better sources and consider fact-checking them first next time. God bless you. 

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Are Catholics Christians?


Are Catholic Christians? Yes! Catholics are the Original Christians!

Catholics are the original Christians because the Catholic Church was founded by Jesus Christ Himself. (See our video on that here.) Catholics were the only Christians for centuries upon centuries.

After Jesus’ ascension into heaven, Catholics were persecuted for centuries. Nonetheless, they protected the deposit of faith given by Christ and preached it to all nations. It was the Catholic Church alone who defended the divinity of Christ when it came under attack heretics. It was the Catholic Church who made the Bible and protected it for over 1000 years – long before any denomination was ever even heard of. Every religion that considers itself Christian has its origin in Catholicism, or, was completely invented from nothing, and with no authority.

The first serious break in the Catholic Church came over a thousand years later. In the year 1054, the Orthodox churches broke away from the Catholic Church and the authority of the Pope. While the Orthodox reunited twice with the Catholic Church throughout history, they broke away again at a later time and remain separated to this day.

What happened in 1517 was even more serious. Martin Luther mutinied and rebelled against Christ’s Church and went on to invent his own, but without any authority to do so. He was a mere mortal man. How could he possible attempt to change what Christ already started. Therefore, simply stated, the Lutheran Church is a man made religion, as are all other denominations.

It was not long after Luther broke away that Calvin and Luther disagreed with each other over doctrine, and Zwingli disagreed with both of them. All parties condemned the other. By the end of his life, Luther was so frustrated that everyone was going by the Bible alone but coming up with their own contradictory interpretations of it. By the time Luther died there were over 240 new Christian religions (or denominations) born of the Protestant movement.

Today, there are tens of thousands of denominations, and each of them still going by the Bible alone and claiming to be the correct denomination. They each claimed to be led by the Holy Spirit and yet come up with contradictory and competing doctrines and beliefs.

Now, either these man-made religions are very confused or the Holy Spirit is confused because they all contradict each other in some way and come up with different belief and teachings. (Spoiler alert: the Holy Spirit doesn’t get confused!)

Needless to say, This confusion did not exist from the beginning. Some denominations assert that it doesn’t matter what one believes as long as they believe in Jesus. Be it Lutheran, Catholic, Episcopalian, Methodist; “We’re all just different denominations, all believing in Jesus. Isn’t that what’s important?” That is a very morally relativistic attitude. Believing in Jesus is not enough. Even Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Muslims “believe in Jesus.” There are even “Jews for Jesus.” The Catholic Church has been teaching the Christian truth and defending it for over 2,000 years long before all of this confusion came to exist.

Those who falsely suppose that the Catholic Church is not Christian but a pagan church, consider this; it was the Catholic Church that put the Bible together under one cover as we know it today. By the guidance and inspiration of the Holy Spirit (that Christ left to guide the Church), the Catholic Church decided which books would be in the Bible and which books would not be, and they put the Bible under one cover as we know it today. God worked through the Catholic Church for over a thousands years to bring about the Bible to us. This proves that the Catholic Church is not a pagan church. It also proves that God works through the church he started and has from the beginning.

Many former Catholics who did not know their faith before they left might scream otherwise, and many anti-Catholics will spout lies over the internet. However, neither group are able to get their facts straight or their arguments correct regarding Catholicism. They are full of flagrant errors and elementary straw men mistakes. If you look at their arguments and do a bit of research you will see they are incorrect. You may also see our article here on the sad story of ex-Catholics, or you may click here to see the bad arguments against Catholicism rebutted.

You might see people who say we worship Mary or the Pope. Yet our own Catholic documents state the opposite, teaching that Catholics do not worship anybody except God alone. So, how can they assert such errors in good conscience? They come up with many interesting, but false, ideas about what Catholics believe. We believe there is only one God and one Lord Jesus Christ, and we have for 2000 years.

Are Catholics Christians? YES!

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The MESS of the Catholic Church in America

The Decline of the Catholic Church: Radical Feminism, Moral Dissent, New Age, Liberalism, and the Disintegration of American Priests, Nuns, and Religious.

Catholic Nuns! Sweet. Innocent. Kind. Endearing. Compassionate.

Yet, the reality is that many Catholic Sisters, along with cardinals, bishops, priests, and theologians share a large responsibility for the current crisis going on in the Catholic Church today. This response will examine the disastrous downfall of clergy and religious in the United States.

From 1966-1976, 50,000 nuns and religious sisters[1] left the Church throwing off the “shackles of Rome” and alleged male oppression.[2] They jumped freely into a culture raging with anarchy, sexually liberality, and spiritual confusion. Many more Sisters stayed in the Church to change into something else entirely.

In the 1970s, they followed the depraved influences of pied-pipers like: Fr. Matthew Fox, Fr. Andrew Greeley, Fr. Thomas Berry, Fr. Edward Schillebeeckx, Fr. Richard McBrien, Fr. Hans Kung, and many other heterodox and dissenting priests. During this time, Sisters seemed to develop as many spiritualities as there were religious orders.

Traditional Catholicism was cast out the window for a hodgepodge of esoteric prayers and new age practices. Simultaneously, nuns were hijacked by malicious feminists who held an anti-church agenda. One would not believe it, but rebellion, anarchy, and immorality summed up this whole generation of Sisters. In the book, the Green Sisters, one religious nun boasts about changing the religious vows and sums up the generation perfectly:

“Now we were marching in the streets, going to jail, creating our own liturgies, designing our own jobs, living in Third World countries, becoming radicalized, challenging the institutional church and making headlines. We prayed in our rooms instead of the Chapel, did our yoga, Tai Chi and Zen sitting, used a mantra and spontaneous prayer. … We socialized with men, gave retreats, called ourselves feminists, held press conferences, promoted women’s ordination, criticized the US government, rejected our middle-class upbringing, or genes, gave workshops, associated with the hippies and read questionable books and articles.”[3]

The original feminists in this country were all 100% pro-life, pro-femininity, and worked with great love to end inequalities all while not losing themselves. We revered them for their efforts. However, later waves of feminism arrived that were anti-Catholic and anti-everything. Frightening feminists like Rosemary Radford Ruether, a columnist at the National Catholic Reporter, was one of the big movers and shakers influencing women religious in a malevolent way.

Women’s Conferences, which are supposed to be a safe haven for learning and growing in our faith became a haven for rebellion hiring radical speakers which infected countless innocent Catholic women. Many good, unsuspecting Sisters got caught up in the craze, intentionally or unintentionally. If they attended these conferences, they were subjected to hearing talks about the goddess within, God being male and female, and many other neo-pagan feminist themes which were expounded upon.

They also learned about things like Eastern Oriental spirituality, Shamanism, Native American religions, New Age beliefs, Creation spirituality, Liberation theology, Wicca/Witchcraft, neo-paganism, goddess worship, and more causing many to reject their Catholic roots for a new “enlightenment.”[4] At one of these conferences, for example, There were Protestant speakers, a Jewish speaker, and a Hindu who delivered an address on the goddess Kali. There were also professed lesbians, witches, and former nuns who taught things like Raja yoga, Tai Chi, and other Eastern practices.[5]

In general, there was an overly obsessed and unhealthy notion of femininity and a rejection of the masculine. Many Sisters would overemphasize the worship of the Divine Feminine in different forms. Some even embraced the worship of Gaia, or the divine Mother Earth.

Women like Dr. Rosemary Reuther were also responsible for the hijacking of religious sisters. Rejecting her own Catholicism and having a deep hatred for the Church, Reuther stayed “Catholic” even though she accepted paganism in both thought and action. She helped spearhead the movement to change the Catholic Church into something of her own likeness and image. This dark and volatile woman was openly revolutionary.

“In a 1980 essay, she called for the ‘equivalent of a French Revolution’ to overthrow the authority of the hierarchy.”[6] She poisoned countless Catholics as a featured columnist at the National Catholic Reporter. Her book, Women-Church is more passed on pagan nature religions that on Catholicism, and everything is changed. Baptism is no longer the forgiveness of sin, it is freedom from the patriarchy. The removal of personal sin on Ash Wednesday becomes the need for the Church to repent instead.[7]

Women like Dr. Rosemary Reuther were also responsible for the hijacking of religious sisters. Rejecting her own Catholicism and having a deep hatred for the Church, Reuther stayed “Catholic” even though she accepted paganism in both thought and action. She helped spearhead the movement to change the Catholic Church into something of her own likeness and image. This dark and volatile woman was openly revolutionary. “In a 1980 essay, she called for the ‘equivalent of a French Revolution’ to overthrow the authority of the hierarchy.”[6] She poisoned countless Catholics as a featured columnist at the National Catholic Reporter. Her book, Women-Church is more passed on pagan nature religions that on Catholicism, and everything is changed. Baptism is no longer the forgiveness of sin, it is freedom from the patriarchy. The removal of personal sin on Ash Wednesday becomes the need for the Church to repent instead.[7]

All of these influences steered many unsuspecting nuns down the path wrong path. Unlike priests who defiantly left the church in the wake of the sexual revolution era, most of these new feminists chose to obstinately stay in the very church they disdained. They worked hard to rid the church of authority, to offer pride of place to the personal conscience rather than the Bible or the hierarchy, to discard God as a male, and to work toward inclusivity and syncretism to a detrimental level.

To the innocent bystander, it seems inconceivable that thousands of religious nuns would be won over. They were the founders of schools, the great educators of our time, laborers at hospitals and orphanages, missionaries to the poorest of the poor, and bright lights to the forgotten, uncared for, and defenseless. They were Jesus’ very hands and feet. This is true, and it makes the disintegration of religious orders in America all the more tragic.

Influenced by the culture, dissident priests-gone-wild, false feminism, and faulty interpretations of the Second Vatican Council, Religious sisters trashed many central Catholic doctrines like the centrality of Christ, objective morality, monotheism, the immutability of God, and more. The book Ungodly Rage: The Hidden Face of Catholic Feminism expounds on their lamentable defections. This quote echoes the one above from the Green Sisters:

“Nuns, who in the early 1960s had warned students not to view the Sacraments as ‘magical’, came to embrace occult practices, implicitly if not explicitly demonic. Out of the human instinct to express faith in physical gestures, many of those who ceased to kneel for prayer began to substitute yoga postures, T’ai Chi, “New Age” spiritualism or circle dances, and widdershins, around a smoking cauldron. They sought “empowerment” in the “ancient wisdom” of Eastern monism, “goddess” paganism, dubious “Native American traditions,” voodoo, witchcraft or the animist “spirits” of the newly invented earth religions. Some who denied the existence of angels found new age “channeling” and “spirit guides” credible. From disparate shreds of mythology, politics, and imagination, religious feminists have cobbled together neo-pagan and neo-Gnostic rituals to offer as appropriate expressions of ‘women’s spirituality.’”[8]

A wide variety of eccentric beliefs, disciplines and prayer practices developed and replaced authentically Catholic ones, which cast aside. Let us take the “Green Sisters” as one example out of many that could be enumerated. These Sisters peddle a creation, eco-spirituality. Many seem to worship nature alongside God, accept that common meals are the Eucharist,[9] and Mother Earth is the Bible and source of revelations.[10]

Additionally, Jesus is not the only Christ but an avenue to Christ Consciousness that we all must attain. As a woman, the Blessed Virgin Mary is elevated to a place of divinity and is known as, the “Cosmic Matrix.” These Sisters replaced traditional litanies to Mary which asked for her prays with a strange cosmic alternative. For example, here is part of the traditional Catholic litany:

Holy Mary, pray for us.

Holy Mother of God, pray for us.

Holy Virgin of virgins, pray for us.

Mother of Christ, pray for us.

Mother most pure, pray for us.

Virgin most faithful, pray for us.

This is some of the revised version of the litany:

Matter impregnated with spirit,
pray for us.

Fire of the Galaxies, pray for us.

Dust of the stars, pray for us.

Music of the spheres, pray for us.

Energy of the Supernovas, pray for
us, etc.

Guide into the Ecozoic, pray for
us, etc.[11]

If strange, bizarre, and troubling are words that come to your mind, you would not be alone. Both Sisters from within the Green Sisters and other faithful Religious have spoken out boldly against these “New Age” counterfeits. They have articulated loudly the outlandish practices and heresies being practiced, calling out their panentheism, nature worship, and other pagan rituals that have overtaken so many of the authentic Catholic religions.[12]

Unfortunately, many Religious women to varying degrees were infected with less than sound Catholic teachings. They chose a syncretic blend of different spiritualities: New Age, Cosmic, Creation, Native American, Neo-pagan, Feminist, and more. From there, a plethora of Catholic, pseudo-Catholic, and non-Catholic teachings would filter down over the next few decades through many Catholic school systems, religious education programs, woman’s conferences, seminars, hospitals, and parishes.

“Not only eccentric individuals but entire religious communities from the mother-house down adopted policies adversarial toward the church.”[13]

In turn, they were responsible for teaching others in the Church, which in large part, helped create generations of confused, ill-informed, and uncatechized Catholics. Many people have left the Church because of the feared nuns of those days.

Religious sisters are not alone in this wholesale dissemination of false and fanatical anti-Catholic spirituality and doctrine. Endorsed by priests and the cardinal, “The Los Angeles Religious Education Congress sponsored by the archdiocese, featured a cavalcade of dissenters and anti-Vatican agitators. Advocates of female ordination, critics of the papacy, discredited theologians, and others found safe haven at the gathering” to promote their deviant ideas of Catholicism.[14]

Professor Ralph McInerny sheds more light on this anarchy. He states:

“For twenty years thereafter, dissent was allowed to continue unabated. It became institutionalized. … Dissenters were offered sanctuary in theology departments of Catholic universities, where from tenured posts, they dismissed and even scoffed at magisterial pronouncements, even teaching their students to do so. … These universities trained future teachers, for universities, colleges, and high schools; they trained directors of religious education. For years, students of these dissenting theologians continued to fan out into positions within the Church. … Anti-papal Catholics – controlled the seminaries, the universities, and other important positions in the Church.” [15]

It is safe to say that evil has festered within the walls of the Catholic Church
for 50 years or more. Let a cat out of the bag, and it is difficult to get it
back in once again. What would happen if a thousand cats were let out of a
bag?  Thus, the Catholic Church needed to take some action for the good of the Orders and the Church herself.

After the turn of the millennium, the Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith began investigating the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR). This is the umbrella group for the largest organization of Religious Sisters in America which accounts for about 80% of all Religious Sisters in the United States.

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith ordered a major investigation. In 2012, Archbishop J. Peter Sartain was designated to investigate the rogue group, to deal with dissent and “serious doctrinal problems.” Regarding the LCWR, the book Sisters in Crisis
explains;

“With the approval of Pope Benedict XVI, the CDF was ordering a
sweeping reform of their organization. Simultaneously in Washington DC, the USCCB released an eight-page assessment document that outlined the reforms to be made under the supervision of archbishop J. Peter Sartain with the assistance of two other bishops – Leonard Blair and Thomas Papraki.”[16][17]

Due to many New Age topics and heterodox views from speakers at their national conference, the organization was told they must receive approval for their speakers to ensure faithfulness to Catholic teachings.[18] Of course, this is only one aspect of the problems in the Catholic Church. Other
serious concerns regarded the liberal-minded bishops and priests, dissidents, who told lay people after Vatican II, that if they disagreed with the Catholic Church, that they should just follow their consciences instead.

This is exactly what Jesus said not to do. The turbulent times after Vatican II were rebellious ones, a rebellion which continues to this day in many ways. Too many people falsely consider themselves to be more of an authority than the Catholic Church and the teachings Chris Himself delivered to the Church.

The ripple effects of this spiritual madness and the blatant attacks against Christ’s Church still affect us today. They are in large part responsible for its spiritual devastation around us both in and out of the Church. Rebellion was the sin of the devil and the first sin of Adam and Eve. Rebellion is not a path to heaven and has no share in God.

Jesus taught that you can tell a tree by the fruit it bears. The proof lies in the
rampant decline of nuns in America. In 1965, at the beginning of the mayhem, there were about 280,000 nuns and Religious Sisters. Today, there are less than 50,000 and most of them are elderly. In my diocese alone, there were over 2,000 nuns in 1965, and today in 2018, there are a little over 500 left.[19]

90% of these Sisters are 80 years old or older. This is the future of our
church if we continue down the same failed path! Thankfully, many young orders of nuns that are orthodox are beginning to replace the ones who have fallen away.

A new brand of Religious Sisters is exploding onto the scene today and are returning to the traditions of the Catholic Church. These Sisters wear habits
again, are faithful and obedient to Holy Mother Church, are orthodox, and are joyful, selfless servants. As would be expected, they are burgeoning in
popularity attracting women from across the world. One only needs to call to mind the Sisters of Charity, the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration, the
Nashville Dominican Sisters, and the Sisters of Life, to name a few.

The Poor Clares, the order of Mother Angelica, offers us a great example of faithful religious life. After Vatican II, this order chose to modernize and fall in sync with the culture. In many ways, they lost their spirituality, compromised their vows, and lived more of a fun and worldly life rather than a vocation of holiness for Jesus.

However, after seeing the rebellion of so many Sisters across the country, Mother Angelica returned to orthodoxy and a life of deep prayer. Since then her order has grown and she started EWTN, the largest religious radio and television network in the world. It has helped millions worldwide to witness the truth of Catholicism and to be faithful followers of Jesus Christ!

This was a top-ranking moral theologian who was promulgating teachings that were anything but Catholic. One can clearly see the confusion during the 1970s – 1990s when this kind of rebellion was rampant and in full swing. To offer an indication of just how far things went, 750 other theologians who should absolutely know better chose to throw their morals away and stand by his side.[21]

Catholics who are living in 2018 in the aftermath of the sex scandals can see how much moral filth had entered the church so long ago. In fact, the majority of all sexual abuse took place during this time. It is no wonder priestly vocations are down, the Church’s foundations have eroded, and the Church has lost her identity of who She is. This moral rot and waste must be extricated from our Church. Mother Angelica is just one of many faithful nuns who have been faithful to Jesus until death, even when viciously attacked by this moral evil disguised in the form of priests and bishops who tried to destroy her.

This feisty and powerful nun called out the corruption, dissidence, and disgusting perversions in the Church that even priests, bishops, and cardinals were involved in. For example, Raymond Arroyo narrates about Father Charles Curran who was a high-ranking moral theologian, yet, he believed in; “pre-marital sex, homosexuality, masturbation, and abortion – all practices strictly forbidden by traditional Catholic teaching.”[20]

While many older orders of nuns are unfortunately fading away, a new light is dawning. These new orders of Religious Sisters are a beautiful and encouraging renewal happening in the Church, a bright light of resurgence,  and a promise ofthings to come.  These Sisters are proud to be Catholic and proud to serve Jesus Christ and His Church faithfully. Let us not also forget the many nuns and Sisters who have stayed faithful to the Church and have served humbly over the last four decades. Let us pray for priests, nuns, and religious everywhere that this new “Springtime of Faith” may grow to maturity and come to a full bloom!


[1] There is a technical difference that most people are not aware of. Nuns are woman who never leave the convent while “religious sisters” are the normal “nuns” that you see in daily life. Most people usually call all Sisters nuns.

[2] Ungodly Rage, Pg. 20

[3] Taylor,
Sarah McFarland, The Green Sisters,
Pg. 32

[4] Ibid.
Pg. 29-32

[5] Ibid.
Pg. 31

[6] Ungodly Rage, Pg. 29-36

[7] Hauke,
Manfred, God or Goddess, Pg. 216-217

[8] Ibid. Pg. 23

[9] The Green Sisters, Pg.260

[10] Ibid.
Pg.174

[11] Ibid.
147-148

[12] Ibid.
260-265

[13] Ungodly Rage, Pg. 21

[14] Arroyo,
Raymond, Mother Angelica¸ Pg. 263

[15] McInerny, Ralph M., What went wrong with VATICAN II:
The Crisis Explained
, Pg. 109-110.

[16] Carey,
Ann, Sisters In Crisis, Pg.361

[17] Bishop Leonard Blair Takes on the LCWR, http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/bishop-leonard-blair-takes-on-the-lcwr

[18] Vatican official rebukes U.S. nuns’ group for ‘fundamental errors,’ LCWR issues response — UPDATED, http://thedialog.org/featured/vatican-official-rebukes-u-s-nuns-group-for-fundamental-errors

[19] Archdiocese of Hartford Pastoral Planning
Issue 2017
, https://www.stewardsfortomorrow.org/second-issue-2017.html

[20] Mother Angelica¸ Pg. 204.

[21] Ibid.
Pg. 205

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